AFRICA, SOCIOLOGIE, ANTHROPOLOGIE, pdf

Rainforest Hunter

Central Africa Rain-forest

Aka Village

Aka Hunter

Aka Portrait


pp. 1-2Preface

Juichi ITANI and Minako ARAKI

PDF file of body text (505 KB)(new!)


pp.3-18DEVELOPMENT OF A MAJOR RICE CULTIVATION AREA IN THE KILOMBERO VALLEY, TANZANIAFutoshi KATO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
After economic liberalisation in Tanzania, rice cultivation rapidly expanded as a source of income, and several production areas formed. The Kilombero Valley, located in central southern Tanzania, is a major rice production area. The people residing in the valley had already developed the original rice paddy cultivation system for subsistence farming by the mid nineteenth century. The system depends on run-off from a flooded tributary of the Kilombero River. Recently, production using the indigenous cultivation system has increased and has produced a surplus for sale. However, suitable lands for the flood cultivation system are limited to narrow riversides. One reason why rice production has successfully increased is the introduction of modern technologies, such as tractors and trucks, into the indigenous system. Tractors and trucks have enabled the expansion of paddy fields to remote areas, and as a result, rice production has increased. At the same time, abundant production has accelerated the trading of rice and has increased opportunities for trading. Thus, increased rice production in the Kilombero Valley based on the established indigenous cultivation system has led to activation of the rice market.
Key Words: Economic liberalisation; Endogenous development; Flood; Indigenous cultivation; Tractor and truck.PDF file of body text (649 KB)(new!)


pp. 19-38MULTIPLE USES OF SMALL-SCALE VALLEY BOTTOM LAND:CASE STUDY OF THE MATENGO IN SOUTHERN TANZANIARyugo KUROSAKI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Many recent studies have examined wetlands as a food supply resource in sub-Saharan Africa. Although a number of studies have investigated the use of large-scale wetlands such as swamps and floodplains, little is known about the use of small-scale valley bottom lands. The Matengo, who are Bantu speakers living in mountainous southern Tanzania, have developed intensive use of ntambo, the principal unit of land tenure and use. Ntambo land use is based on an indigenous farming system called ngolo as well as coffee cultivation. At the same time, small valley bottom lands (kijungu) have also been used. In recent years, people have begun to pay greater attention to diversifying kijungu land use against the backdrop of economic liberalisation, climate change, and population pressure.Cultivating the kijungu provides the Matengo not only with food during times of scarcity but also with petty cash called ‘hela ya haraka’ for daily use throughout the year. As their use is diversified and expanded, kijungu may be vital for sustaining the Matengo’s livelihood and will become increasingly important in enforcing relationships between other subsistence activities.
Key Words: Cooperative Union; El Niño; Ngolo; SAP; Taro.PDF file of body text (898 KB)(new!)


pp. 39-58FARMERS’ COPING STRATEGIES TO A CHANGED COFFEE MARKET AFTER ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION: THE CASE OF MBINGA DISTRICT IN TANZANIADavid G. MHANDO
Centre for Sustainable Rural Development, Sokoine University of Agriculture
Juichi ITANI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The Mbinga District of Tanzania is a major coffee production area occupied by the Matengo, who cultivate food and cash crops. In 1986, the Tanzanian government introduced Structural Adjustment Programmes, and in 1993, liberalized the coffee market. As a result, subsidies to agricultural inputs were abandoned, and the cooperative union that had been responsible for coffee production and marketing in Mbinga collapsed. At the same time, improvements to growing and processing technologies and the entry of new coffee-producing countries caused overproduction in the global coffee market; thus, the price of coffee decreased to an unprecedented level. With the excessive supply, prices remain in stagnation, but the costs of agricultural inputs continue to rise. Mbinga farmers have pushed for various policy changes regarding coffee production and the natural and social environment while making the best use of the lessens learned from their initial experiences in the new market economy. They have structurally transformed the rural economy, whereby income is generated by distributing the coffee revenue that used to be invested in business. They also have developed a risk-management strategy. In the 10 years since economic liberalization, the farmers abandoned the state system, became economically self-reliant, and modified the structure of the rural economy.
Key Words: Cassava; Diversification; MBICU; Pig; Valley bottom.PDF file of body text (2,659 KB)(new!)


pp. 59-70LOCAL NOTIONS OF PARTICIPATION AND DIVERSIFICATION OF GROUP ACTIVITIES IN SOUTHERN TANZANIAMinako ARAKI
Faculty of Letters and Education, Ochanomizu University
ABSTRACT
Rural economy and livelihood in Mbinga used to have fully depended on coffee. However, due to the decline of economy under the influence of economic liberalization, coffee production was declined, and the farmers have faced problems. Due to the changed situation, they began searching for economic opportunities and information, and this created the need to work together to solve problems. While having interaction with SCSRD project, it has emerged as Sengu Committee and farmers’ groups. The Sengu Committee was formed during construction of a hydro-mill, and it was named as sengu so as to inherit spirit of sengu and work with one aim. The formation of Sengu Committee and the subsequent activities led establishment of groups, which carry out activities related environmental conservation and diversification of economic activities. Some groups have engaged in reciprocal labour as part of group activities, others diversified capacity-built through group activities into other activities such as construction of water supply and a mini hydro-mill. Participation is taking place in different forms according to the context.
Key Words: Rural development; Environmental conservation; Process; Capacity building; Matengo.PDF file of body text (468 KB)(new!)


pp. 71-93 CHANGING LIVELIHOODS AND THE ENVIRONMENT ALONG LAKE NYASA, TANZANIA Stephen J. NINDI
Centre for Sustainable Rural Development, Sokoine University of Agriculture
ABSTRACT
People living along the Lake Nyasa shore, Tanzania relies largely on fishing and cultivation of cassava and rice. The fishing industry has shaped the sociopolitical organisation of local people. The Matengo Highlands and Livingstone Mountains act as catchments of Lake Nyasa. The relationship between the land use in the catchments, Nyasa people’s livelihood and the lake fishing environment is intriguing, because of the belief that catchment forests and streams help make the lake basin a rich habitat. However, recent microeconomic changes in the Matengo Highlands have subjected the catchment areas to undue deforestation from uncoordinated farming activities. The unprecedented degradation of the catchments has disrupted the fish ecology, hence dwindling livelihood opportunities. The local population has had to diversify livelihood strategies. This study examined the changing livelihoods and the environment along Lake Nyasa and mitigation that people have made in response to the changing fishing environment. Extensive surveys and farmer exchange visits were employed to collect diachronic information on livelihood and environmental dynamics along Lake Nyasa and in the Matengo Highlands. Farmers’ exchange visits between the Nyasa and the Matengo allowed villagers to share insights and experiences in an attempt to establish mutual strategies for sustainable local resource management.
Key Words: Lake Nyasa; Catchments degradation; Livelihood diversifications; Kumbi; Farmers’ exchange visit.PDF file of body text (404 KB)(new!)………………………………………………………………………………..pp. 1-2Preface

Juichi ITANI and Minako ARAKI

PDF file of body text (505 KB)(new!)


pp.3-18DEVELOPMENT OF A MAJOR RICE CULTIVATION AREA IN THE KILOMBERO VALLEY, TANZANIAFutoshi KATO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
After economic liberalisation in Tanzania, rice cultivation rapidly expanded as a source of income, and several production areas formed. The Kilombero Valley, located in central southern Tanzania, is a major rice production area. The people residing in the valley had already developed the original rice paddy cultivation system for subsistence farming by the mid nineteenth century. The system depends on run-off from a flooded tributary of the Kilombero River. Recently, production using the indigenous cultivation system has increased and has produced a surplus for sale. However, suitable lands for the flood cultivation system are limited to narrow riversides. One reason why rice production has successfully increased is the introduction of modern technologies, such as tractors and trucks, into the indigenous system. Tractors and trucks have enabled the expansion of paddy fields to remote areas, and as a result, rice production has increased. At the same time, abundant production has accelerated the trading of rice and has increased opportunities for trading. Thus, increased rice production in the Kilombero Valley based on the established indigenous cultivation system has led to activation of the rice market.
Key Words: Economic liberalisation; Endogenous development; Flood; Indigenous cultivation; Tractor and truck.PDF file of body text (649 KB)(new!)


pp. 19-38MULTIPLE USES OF SMALL-SCALE VALLEY BOTTOM LAND:CASE STUDY OF THE MATENGO IN SOUTHERN TANZANIARyugo KUROSAKI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Many recent studies have examined wetlands as a food supply resource in sub-Saharan Africa. Although a number of studies have investigated the use of large-scale wetlands such as swamps and floodplains, little is known about the use of small-scale valley bottom lands. The Matengo, who are Bantu speakers living in mountainous southern Tanzania, have developed intensive use of ntambo, the principal unit of land tenure and use. Ntambo land use is based on an indigenous farming system called ngolo as well as coffee cultivation. At the same time, small valley bottom lands (kijungu) have also been used. In recent years, people have begun to pay greater attention to diversifying kijungu land use against the backdrop of economic liberalisation, climate change, and population pressure.Cultivating the kijungu provides the Matengo not only with food during times of scarcity but also with petty cash called ‘hela ya haraka’ for daily use throughout the year. As their use is diversified and expanded, kijungu may be vital for sustaining the Matengo’s livelihood and will become increasingly important in enforcing relationships between other subsistence activities.
Key Words: Cooperative Union; El Niño; Ngolo; SAP; Taro.PDF file of body text (898 KB)(new!)


pp. 39-58FARMERS’ COPING STRATEGIES TO A CHANGED COFFEE MARKET AFTER ECONOMIC LIBERALIZATION: THE CASE OF MBINGA DISTRICT IN TANZANIADavid G. MHANDO
Centre for Sustainable Rural Development, Sokoine University of Agriculture
Juichi ITANI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The Mbinga District of Tanzania is a major coffee production area occupied by the Matengo, who cultivate food and cash crops. In 1986, the Tanzanian government introduced Structural Adjustment Programmes, and in 1993, liberalized the coffee market. As a result, subsidies to agricultural inputs were abandoned, and the cooperative union that had been responsible for coffee production and marketing in Mbinga collapsed. At the same time, improvements to growing and processing technologies and the entry of new coffee-producing countries caused overproduction in the global coffee market; thus, the price of coffee decreased to an unprecedented level. With the excessive supply, prices remain in stagnation, but the costs of agricultural inputs continue to rise. Mbinga farmers have pushed for various policy changes regarding coffee production and the natural and social environment while making the best use of the lessens learned from their initial experiences in the new market economy. They have structurally transformed the rural economy, whereby income is generated by distributing the coffee revenue that used to be invested in business. They also have developed a risk-management strategy. In the 10 years since economic liberalization, the farmers abandoned the state system, became economically self-reliant, and modified the structure of the rural economy.
Key Words: Cassava; Diversification; MBICU; Pig; Valley bottom.PDF file of body text (2,659 KB)(new!)


pp. 59-70LOCAL NOTIONS OF PARTICIPATION AND DIVERSIFICATION OF GROUP ACTIVITIES IN SOUTHERN TANZANIAMinako ARAKI
Faculty of Letters and Education, Ochanomizu University
ABSTRACT
Rural economy and livelihood in Mbinga used to have fully depended on coffee. However, due to the decline of economy under the influence of economic liberalization, coffee production was declined, and the farmers have faced problems. Due to the changed situation, they began searching for economic opportunities and information, and this created the need to work together to solve problems. While having interaction with SCSRD project, it has emerged as Sengu Committee and farmers’ groups. The Sengu Committee was formed during construction of a hydro-mill, and it was named as sengu so as to inherit spirit of sengu and work with one aim. The formation of Sengu Committee and the subsequent activities led establishment of groups, which carry out activities related environmental conservation and diversification of economic activities. Some groups have engaged in reciprocal labour as part of group activities, others diversified capacity-built through group activities into other activities such as construction of water supply and a mini hydro-mill. Participation is taking place in different forms according to the context.
Key Words: Rural development; Environmental conservation; Process; Capacity building; Matengo.PDF file of body text (468 KB)(new!)


pp. 71-93 CHANGING LIVELIHOODS AND THE ENVIRONMENT ALONG LAKE NYASA, TANZANIA Stephen J. NINDI
Centre for Sustainable Rural Development, Sokoine University of Agriculture
ABSTRACT
People living along the Lake Nyasa shore, Tanzania relies largely on fishing and cultivation of cassava and rice. The fishing industry has shaped the sociopolitical organisation of local people. The Matengo Highlands and Livingstone Mountains act as catchments of Lake Nyasa. The relationship between the land use in the catchments, Nyasa people’s livelihood and the lake fishing environment is intriguing, because of the belief that catchment forests and streams help make the lake basin a rich habitat. However, recent microeconomic changes in the Matengo Highlands have subjected the catchment areas to undue deforestation from uncoordinated farming activities. The unprecedented degradation of the catchments has disrupted the fish ecology, hence dwindling livelihood opportunities. The local population has had to diversify livelihood strategies. This study examined the changing livelihoods and the environment along Lake Nyasa and mitigation that people have made in response to the changing fishing environment. Extensive surveys and farmer exchange visits were employed to collect diachronic information on livelihood and environmental dynamics along Lake Nyasa and in the Matengo Highlands. Farmers’ exchange visits between the Nyasa and the Matengo allowed villagers to share insights and experiences in an attempt to establish mutual strategies for sustainable local resource management.
Key Words: Lake Nyasa; Catchments degradation; Livelihood diversifications; Kumbi; Farmers’ exchange visit.PDF file of body text (404 KB)(new!)……………………………………………………………………………….No. 34(2007)


Indigenous Agriculture in Tanzania and Zambia in the Present Environmental and Socioeconomic Milieu
Edited by Shigeru ARAKI


pp. 1-2Preface and Project OverviewShigeru ARAKI
PDF file of body text (873 KB)(new!)


pp.3-20Comparative Study of Farming Systems in Southwestern Tanzania: Agrarian Adaptation in a Sociohistorical PerspectiveMari KOIZUMI
Department of Culture and Psychology, Seisen Jyogakuin College
ABSTRACT
In this article, I discuss the diversification of cultivation in southwestern Tanzania, particularly the Makete district. I focus on farming systems in Tandala village and Iniho village and examine field types, crops, farming methods, and labor forms. These villages use a similar traditional farming system called masuve cultivation, which is a type of slash-and-burn cultivation in which mounds of vegetation cuttings are formed and burned on mountain slopes. Farmers mainly cultivate beans, Irish potatoes, and sorghum. Another type of farming, esiamba cultivation, involves clearing and hoe-based cultivation on flat fields in a hilly area. Maize and wheat are mainly cultivated in such plots today. As part of sociopolitical transformations in Tanzania, a modern farming system, including the introduction of new crops, paid labor, and chemical fertilizers, has been adopted to some degree. The two villages examined here have reacted differently to agricultural change. I argue that differences in farming systems have historically developed in ways that reflect the actions and choices of local people, influenced by local conditions with regard to regional politics, Christianization, and post-colonial economic development.
Key Words: Agrarian adaptation; Christian impact; Slash-and-burn cultivation; Sociohistorical analysis; Tanzania.PDF file of body text (908 KB)(new!)


pp. 21-38Development of the Plantain-Based Culture of the Nyakusa of Southern TanzaniaSatoshi MARUO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The Nyakyusa constitute an ethnic group in southern Tanzania who are known as the “banana-eaters.” This paper describes and analyzes the plantain-based farming culture of the Nyakyusa from socio-historical, ethnobotanical, and ecological viewpoints, focusing on utilization, management skills, and local varieties. The Nyakyusa have built a close relationship with the crop over hundreds of years. In contrast to other plantain growers in the forest environments of Central Africa, the Nyakyusa create home gardens. In home-garden farming, a miniature forest is created for each family unit, requiring more intensive care than the slash-and-burn agriculture used in natural forest environments. The Nyakyusa have developed cultivation skills, tools, vocabulary, and varietal diversity in relation to the plants, and have also created symbolic meanings for the plants that are related to prosperity, the idea of the sacred, and gender values. Such symbolization may have worked as a social tool to protect this unique crop by conferring multiple meanings upon it. In other words, plantain probably played a key role in consolidating the development of the Nyakyusa rural community.
Key Words: Nyakyusa; Plantain; Musa spp.; Home garden; Cultural importance.PDF file of body text (1,865 KB)(new!)


pp. 39-55Characterization of volcanic ash soils in southwestern Tanzania: Morphology, physicochemical properties, and classificationBalthazar Michael MSANYA1, Hiroo OTSUKA2, Shigeru ARAKI3,Nobuhide FUJITAKE4
1Dep. of Soil Science, Fac. of Agriculture, Sokoine University of Agriculture
2Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences
3Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
4Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University
ABSTRACT
This study examined the characteristics of volcanic ash soils in southwestern Tanzania. Twelve pedons of volcanic origin were studied, and 66 soil samples were analyzed. Soil morphology revealed volcanic ash layers of varying thicknesses. Most pedons had a dark thick humus surface and buried A, AB, and BA horizons with melanic indices of 1.7 or less. Except in two pedons, the NaF pH was 9.4 or more, reflecting an exchange complex dominated by amorphous materials and/or Al–humus complexes. The phospate-retention capacity ranged from 65 to 100%, except in two pedons, and was positively correlated with NaF pH. Both Tanzanian and Japanese volcanic ash soils showed comparable ranges of base saturation (BS) values, but the distribution patterns of BS basic cations, for example, showed some differences. Some Tanzanian volcanic ash soils had higher BS values than their Japanese counterparts. While the Japanese soils were generally more calcic and magnesic, the Tanzanian soils were more potassic and sodic than their counterparts, most likely reflecting lithological differences among parent materials in the two study areas. According to the USDA Soil Taxonomy, nine pedons satisfied the requirements for andic properties and were classified as Andisols at the order level, whereas according to FAO World Reference Base (WRB) soil classification, eight pedons were classified as Andosols at the level of reference soil groups.
Key Words: Soil classification; Morphology; Physicochemical characteristics; Tanzania; Volcanic ash soils.PDF file of body text (1,965 KB)(new!)


pp. 57-74Effects of socio-economic changes on cultivation systems under customary land tenure in MBozi District, southerzaniaJuichi ITANI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto UniversityABSTRACT
Indigenous cultivation systems in the Nyasa–Tanganyika Corridor of Mbozi District, southern Tanzania, reflect strategies developed to cope with political, socioeconomic, and ecological circumstances and changes. Such cultivation systems were formed under the customary land tenure system by which most lands in village are held by a few native clans. A clan elder, called the esongo, manages the distribution and use of each clan’s land. Clans without large landholdings can earn income by borrowing land or helping an owner of an ox cultivate large fields. Therefore, their activities have also been controlled by the rule of the native clans. Clan land management by the esongo has created certain norms of ecological use, which have helped maintain woodlands despite economic development and population pressures. Thus, the clan-controlled land has functioned as a “commons.” Although cultivation systems have changed at times in response to internal and external socioeconomic conditions, customary environmental use practices have served to harmonize human–environmental interactions. However, maize cultivation by ox plowing in permanent fields is rapidly spreading throughout this area in response to market factors and socioeconomic changes. This current change may affect both local society and the environment.
Key Words: Economic liberalization; Miombo woodland; Nyamwanga; Ox plowing; Slash-and-burn.PDF file of body text (2,633 KB)(new!)


pp. 75-89 Ten Years of Population Change and the Chitemene Slash-and-Burn Syst em around the Mpika Area, Northern ZambiaShigeru ARAKI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Newly cleared fields created by the chitemene slash-and-burn system were counted in two satellite images (Landsat TM 7: path 170, low 68) taken in 1994 and 2001 in the Mpika area of the Northern Province, Zambia. These images indicated that the number of chitemene fields was almost the same in 1994 and 2001. However, expansion of chitemene to the interior of forest reserves was apparent in the image from 2001, which clearly showed that the land area is not sufficient to maintain the chitemene system under the present agroenvironmental and socio-economic conditions.The relationship between the number of chitemene fields and population revealed that the density of chitemene in the Standard Enumeration Area (SEA ) increased up to 1 chitemene/km2 with an increase in population density up to 10 people/km2, while it decreased with a further increase in population density. The carrying capacity of the chitemene was thus estimated to be at most 10 persons/ chitemene/km2, a capacity achieved through farmers’ efforts to diversify crop production. Between 1990 and 2000, the population in the resettlement project areas doubled, while in other areas, the population did not increase. This had diverse effects on the environment due to both immigration and emigration in the surveyed areas.
Key Words: Chitemene; Carrying capacity; Miombo; TAZARA; Resettlement; Zambia.PDF file of body text (2.439 KB)(new!)


pp. 91-113 Agricultural policy change and indigenous agriculture: experience and re-evaluation of a shifting cultivation system In Northern Province, ZambiaYuko SUGIYAMA
Faculty of Humanities, Hirosaki University
ABSTRACT
Studies of market liberalization implemented as part of structural adjustment programs (SAPs) have generally noted the strong impacts of these policies on agrarian life and the lives of local people. However, analyses of how market liberalization has affected local life have tended to present an image of “passive peasants.” In this paper, I focus on the logic of local people who have responded actively to changing conditions brought about by new agricultural policies through a case study of Bemba villages in Zambia. Currently, villagers are evaluating newly introduced crops and new agricultural techniques, and reevaluating their indigenous cultivation system. I also discuss the process of change in the indigenous cultivation system, and societal effects of the introduction of market liberalization.
Key Words: Bemba; Indigenous agricultural system; Market liberalization; Villagers’ logic; Leveling mechanism.PDF file of body text (2.611 KB)(new!)


pp. 115-135 SORGHUM CULTIVATION AND SOIL FERTILITY PRESERVATION UNDER Bujimi SLASH-AND-BURN CULTIVATION IN NORTHWESTERN ZAMBIAShuichi OYAMA
Department of Geography, Tokyo Metropolitan University
Fumi KONDO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Here, we describe the cropping system of bujimi slash-and-burn cultivation by the Kaonde people in northwestern Zambia. Bujimi cultivation comprises three cropping systems: monde, making ash patches; milala, making mounds; and masengele, making flat fields. The three cropping systems accumulate soil fertility in different manners, and soil fertility dynamics vary after cultivation. Sorghum was sown for three or four consecutive years, usually followed by maize cultivation for additional 3 or 4 years. After clearing closed forest, the Kaonde gradually expanded small plots of the three cropping systems in the newly generated grassland adjacent to the cultivated field each year, thus creating new soil in bujimi fields for three or four successive years. As a result, varied soil fertility was created in mosaic patterns by combining the cropping systems with the number of cultivation years. The Kaonde also observed the grass species and grass biomass in crop fields and used them as indicators of soil fertility. When they noticed a decline in soil fertility, they planted sweet potato and cassava instead of sorghum monoculture. The Kaonde people maintain sustainable food production through multifold soil fertility preservation and mixed cropping.
Key Words: Bujimi system; Kaonde; Miombo woodland; Shifting cultivation; Zambia.PDF file of body text (4.820 KB)(new!);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

No. 33(2006)


Ecology and Change of the Hunter-Gatherer Societies in the Western Congo Basin
Edited byMitsuo ICHIKAWA and Hirokazu YASUOKA


pp. 1-2 PREFACE
Mitsuo ICHIKAWA and Hirokazu YASUOKA
PDF file of body text (444 KB) (new!)


pp.3-20 PROBLEMS IN THE CONSERVATION OF RAINFORESTS IN CAMEROON
Mitsuo ICHIKAWA

Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies (ASAFAS), Kyoto UniversityABSTRACT
The economic crisis and structural adjustments from late 1980s to early 1990s accelerated logging operations and agricultural expansion in Cameroon, which resulted in a massive destruction of the tropical forest in the southeastern part of the country. As such a forest destruction was posing local as well as global environmental problems, and attracted international attention, various projects have been promoted to save the forest ecosystems in Cameroon. While some of these projects are attempting new conservation measures, emphasizing active participation by local inhabitants, they are still facing difficulties for several reasons. This essay first examines the problems involved in the Western protectionism and nature aesthetics that prevailed in the conservation schemes of the last century. It also demonstrates that the new types of conservation attempts in the area, such as “community forest” and “adaptive management,” have not attained satisfactory results yet, due largely to insufficient information of the multiplex relationships between people and nature in the forest ecosystem and of complex ethnic relationships between hunter-gatherers and farmers in the area. In order to properly understand the relationships of people with forest in a wider social and economic context, three types of ecological investigation are proposed here; (1) cultural ecology, to show how people’s life and culture depend on the forest and its resources, (2) historical ecology, to evaluate short- and long-term impacts of human activities on the forest environment, and (3) political ecology to illustrate the relationship between the forest-related activities on the local level and the political and economic situations on the national and international levels.Key Words: Forest destruction; Western protectionism; Local problems; People-forest relationships; Ethnic relationships.PDF file of body text (620 KB) (new!)


pp. 21-28 A BRIEF REPORT ON A LARGE MOUNTAIN-TOP COMMUNITY OF DIOSCOREA PRAEHENSILIS IN THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST OF SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON Hiroaki SATO
Hamamatsu University School of Medicine ABSTRACT
Wild yam tubers have been considered to be key food to resolving the question of whether hunter-gatherers could live independently of agriculture in a tropical rainforest, or what made it possible. Above all Dioscorea praehensilis is known as the most reliable staple food in Africa. In February 2000, the author found a large community of D. praehensilis on the upper part of a small mountain in southeastern Cameroon. Using the belt-transect method, the author estimated the density of stems and the productivity of edible tubers at 147 per hectare and 118 kg per hectare, respectively. These values are much higher than found in other studies. This mountain is one of several areas which local Baka hunter-gatherers recognize as rich in D. praehensilis. Such places would have made it possible for old hunter- gatherers who had never lived in the forest interior to have done so.Key Words: Baka hunter-gatherers; Wild yam; Dioscorea praehensilis; Tropical rainforest; The yam question.PDF file of body text (634 KB) (new!)


pp. 29-48 UTILIZATION OF MARANTACEAE PLANTS BY THE BAKA HUNTER-GATHERERS IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON Shiho HATTORI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies (ASAFAS), Kyoto University ABSTRACT
The Baka hunter-gatherers of the Cameroonian rainforest use plants of the family Marantaceae for a variety of purposes, as food, in material culture, as “medicine” and as trading item. They account for as much as 40% of the total number of uses of plants in Baka material culture. The ecological background of such intensive uses in material culture reflects the abundance of Marantaceae plants in the African rainforest. This article describes the frequent and diversified uses of Marantaceae plants, which comprise a unique characteristic in the ethnobotany of the Baka hunter-gatherers and other forest dwellers in central Africa.Key Words: Ethnobotany; Baka hunter-gatherers; Marantaceae; Multi-purpose plants; Rainforest.PDF file of body text (2,193 KB) (new!)


pp. 49-69 PERCEPTION OF HUNTING, GATHERING AND FISHING TECHNIQUES OF THE BAKOLA OF THE COASTAL REGION, SOUTHERN CAMEROON Godefroy NGIMA MAWOUNG
The University of Yaoundé I ABSTRACT
While the BaKola (sin. Nkola) are known as one of the “Pygmy” groups in the forest regions of central Africa, their subsistence activities have not yet been described in details, unlike other groups of “Pygmies” in the central African region. This paper is thus to present the basic data on their tools and techniques for hunting, gathering and fishing, and on the social representations of these techniques, and to examines the reasons why up to the 21st century they have been maintaining their distinctive lifestyle as hunter-gatherers, through analyzing their roles played and the symbolism represented by their activities in the multi-ethnic local community of the coastal region of southern Cameroon. In particular, it demonstrates that their trade, gift-exchanges, important rituals, and other aspects of their social and economic life are based on the three major traditional activities, hunting, gathering and fishing.Key Words: Bakola; Hunting; Gathering; Fishing; Techniques; Tools; Socio-cultural role; Woman’s role.PDF file of body text (1,845 KB) (new!)


pp. 71-93 SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP AMONG BABONGO IN SOUTHERN GABON Naoki MATSUURA
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
Largely because the Babongo in central and southern Gabon sedentarized and adopted agriculture, they have not attracted much attention of researchers who are interested in hunting-gathering activities and relationships with the natural environment. Many aspects of their livelihood and social life still remain unclear. This article, therefore, describes and analyzes Babongo settlement distribution, residential pattern, subsistence and economic activities, residential mobility, visiting activities and social relationships based on quantitative data collected in the field. In particular, their sedentary lifestyle and social relationships are discussed, focusing on the interethnic relationship with the neighboring Massango farmers.Key Words: Gabon; Babongo; Massango; Sedentarization; Interethnic relations; Assimilation.PDF file of body text (990 KB) (new!)


pp. 95-120 THE SUSTAINABILITY OF DUIKER (CEPHALOPHUS SPP.) HUNTING FOR THE BAKA HUNTER-GATHERERS IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON Hirokazu YASUOKA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies (ASAFAS), Kyoto University ABSTRACT
Logging operations brought a boom in the bushmeat trade and wildlife management projects into the heart of the forest in southeastern Cameroon. Hunting pressure on duikers (Cephalophus spp.) reached an unsustainable level because of the intensified hunting in areas close to roads. Control of the bushmeat trade was then reinforced, and the hunting subsided. The excessive control of hunting, however, could negatively affect the standard of living of the local people because animal meat has long been a major source of protein for forest dwellers in the Congo Basin. Before the opening of logging roads, hunting pressure remained within a sustainable level through an extensive use of hunting grounds covering a large area. Therefore, for the local people to maintain their standard of living, it is essential to grant them the right to consume animals for their subsistence in an extensive manner over a large area, as well as to impose some controls on the bushmeat trade.Key Words: Bushmeat; Congo Basin; Logging roads; Rainforest; Wildlife management.PDF file of body text (2,227 KB) (new!)


pp. 121-142 THE IMPACT OF CASH AND COMMODITIZATION ON THE BAKA HUNTER-GATHERER SOCIETY IN SOUTHEASTERN CAMEROON Koichi KITANISHI
Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi University ABSTRACT
The Baka in southeastern Cameroon are one of the “Pygmy” hunter-gatherer groups living in the tropical rainforest of central Africa. Since the 1950s, they have gradually adopted cultivation and sedentarization, as well as the use of money and commoditization. One of the characteristics of the Baka monetary activities is the importance of direct and immediate consumption, similar to that in hunting-gathering activities. Small amounts of money are used differently from the way large amounts of money are used. The former is used for daily goods, and the latter is for bride-wealth. The limited usage of bills of high denomination prevents inequality across the society of the Baka in spite of the large difference in their cash income. But there is a potential for capitalistic use of money and inequality through the commoditization of labor among the Baka. In the 1950s, the Baka were under farmer control in term of the circulation of money and European products, which enlarged social and economic dominance of farmers over the Baka. However, the adoption of cultivation of Bakas’ fields, the increased importance of the Baka as cacao and coffee field laborers, and the advance of logging companies, loosened farmer control of money and European products. These circumstances have helped the Baka keep relative autonomy in their economy and society, compared to other Pygmy groups at present.Key Words: Baka; Hunter-gatherer; Money; Commoditization; Social change; Equality.PDF file of body text (680 KB) (new!):::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::No. 32(2005)


STUDY OF THE TERTIARY HOMINOIDS AND THEIR PALAEOENVIRONMENTS IN EAST AFRICA: 7 Edited by Hidemi ISHIDA and Hiroshi TSUJIKAWA


pp. 1-50 The Updated Late Miocene Large Mammal Fauna from Samburu Hills, Northern Kenya
Hiroshi TSUJIKAWA

Graduate School of Science, Kyoto UniversityABSTRACT
The Late Miocene Fauna from the Namurungule Formation, Samburu Hills, Northern Kenya was described by Nakaya (1994) and Nakaya et al. (1984, 1987) based on the 1982 and 1984 collections. Since then, numerous fossils were collected during the 1986, 1998 and 1999 field seasons. The additional large mammal fossil specimens which are described in this paper include Amphicyonidae or Ursidae gen. et sp. indet., Machairodontinae gen. et sp. indet., Felidae gen. et sp. indet., Choerolophodon sp., Deinotherium sp., Pliohyracidae gen. et sp. indet., Hipparion africanum, Paradiceros mukirii, Chilotheridium pattersoni, Nyanzachoerus sp. small (N. cf. devauxi), Nyanzachoerus sp. large, Kenyapotamus coryndoni, Palaeotragus cf. germaini, Boselaphini sp. large (Tragoportax sp.), Boselaphini sp. small (gen. et sp. nov.), Reduncini gen. et sp. indet., Gazella sp. and Bovidae gen. et sp. indet. Choerolophodon sp., Pliohyracidae gen. et sp. indet. and Reduncini gen. et sp. indet. were new discoveries in the Namurungule Formation. Nyanzachoerus sp. small (N. cf. devauxi), Palaeotragus cf. germaini and Boselaphini sp. large (Tragoportax sp.) were revised on the basis of well preserved new material. According to the updated faunal list, the Namurungule Fauna shows strong resemblance to faunas of East African localities of the same period, early Late Miocene (10.5 – 9.0 Ma), but shows strong difference from the faunas of East African localities of the Middle (older than 10.5 Ma) and late Late Miocene (7.0 – 5.5 Ma).Key Words:Late Miocene; Large mammal fauna; Northern Kenya.PDF file of body text (1,482 KB) (new!)


pp.51-62 THE PALAEOENVIRONMENT OF SAMBURUPITHECUS KIPTALAMI BASED ON ITS ASSOCIATED FAUNA
Hiroshi TSUJIKAWA

Graduate School of Science, Kyoto UniversityABSTRACT
This paper analyzes the palaeoenvironment of the Late Miocene large hominoid, Samburupithecus kiptalami by using the mammalian faunal assemblages. It is based on the mammal fauna found at the hominoid sites, using the habitat preferences of extant mammals, the probable feeding preferences based on morphology of the teeth, the footprint fauna and the relative abundance of each mammal taxon. The habitat preferences of extant mammals and the probable feeding preferences in relative abundances of each mammal taxon suggest that the Upper Member of the Namurungule Formation is likely to have been open whereas the Lower one is likely to have included both open and wooded components. In fact, the faunal components are different at various places in the lower part of the formation. Near the hominoid bearing site, SH 22, the palaeoenvironment seems to have been more wooded. Several places are likely to have been open environments. The footprints suggest a swampland surrounded by savanna. Samburupithecus kiptalami was likely to have inhabited woodland surrounded by an open environment such as savanna and grassland.Key Words:Hominoid; Late Miocene; Mammalian fauna; Northern Kenya; Palaeoenvironment.PDF file of body text (82 KB) (new!)


pp. 63-78 FLORA AND VEGETATION OF NACHOLA, SAMBURU DISTRICT, NORTHERN KENYA: A STUDY OF VEGETATION IN AN ARID LAND Haruyuki MAKISHIMA
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
Although patchy vegetation of open grassland and closed woodland or forest is often reconstructed as a habitat of early hominids, there are few studies of modern vegetation of this type. Vegetational and floral study in Nachola, northern Kenya aimed to remedy this lack. It appeared to have 160 species, which accords well with treated physiognomical classifications of semi arid open vegetations in northern Kenya. There are two contrasting types of vegetation i.e. riverine forest and grassland. Riverine forest comprises two dominant species and several tree species. Grassland has less biomass and despite its name, grass is rare. Instead, dwarf shrubs of Labiatae dominate the surface of the land. Riverine forest in Nachola has two major species, both producing fruits edible to frugivorous mammals, Ficus sycomorus and Acacia tortilis ssp. spirocarpa. Fruit production is suggested to be greater in F. sycomorus. Possibility of early hominid habitats should be discussed based on such an analysis of modern equivalents.Key Words: Arid land; Flora; Fruit; Pliocene hominids; Riverine forest; Vegetation.PDF file of body text (445 KB) (new!)


pp. 79-86 FICUS SYCOMORUS FRUIT PRODUCTION IN A SEMI ARID LAND IN NORTHERN KENYA: IMPLICATIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING A POSSIBLE FOOD RESOURCE OF EARLY HOMINIDS Haruyuki MAKISHIMA
Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
Food production of riverine forest in semi arid land, or patchy vegetation in northern Kenya is much needed for discussing the habitat of early hominids. This study aims to estimate the fruit production of Ficus sycomorus along the Baragoi River in Nachola and Baragoi, northern Kenya, possible source for the Pliocene australopithecines. As the largest fruit producer in the forest, the population of F. sycomorus in this riverine forest is counted and the Basal Area of all individuals measured. The number of fruits and their weights are also measured. The total production can be estimated to know the carrying capacity of this forest. The energy yielded by F. sycomorus of this population calculated is at least 74,500 kcal per day. This amount of energy suggests enough for a small group of early hominids during the period of food scarcity.Key Words: Carrying capacity; Ficus sycomorus ; Fruit production; Pliocene hominid; Riverine forest.PDF file of body text (651 KB) (new!);;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

No. 31 (2005)


DYNAMICS OF CONTINUITY AND CHANGE IN PASTORAL SUBSISTENCE AMONG THE RENDILLE IN NORTHERN KENYA: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT AND RESPONSES TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGESUN Xiaogang
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University


pp. 1-94 ABSTRACT
This study investigates how a pastoralist people of the arid regions of East Africa have coped with complex natural and socio-economic environmental changes by means of a case study of the Rendille people in northern Kenya. The study is based not only on data collected during 18 months’ fi eldwork, but also on detailed comparisons with previous studies from anthropological and ecological perspectives. The results show that the current pastoral subsistence of the Rendille constitutes a comprehensive system involving both pastoral production and associations with the local economy. The pastoral production system consists of the political and social centers offered by the settlements and the pastoral production sector of the livestock herding camps. Its place in the local economy is refl ected, mainly, by contacts with the developing towns. By continuing with the communal utilization of land and water resources, specializing livestock management tasks in herding camps, and forming cooperative relations that based on important social institutions, the Rendille are able to maintain the fl exibility of, and improvement in, livestock management and pastoral strategies. In addition, the process of combining challenging new economic activities and developing pastoral production systems illustrates the dynamics of pastoral subsistence today.Key Words: Pastoral subsistence; Environmental changes; Livestock management; New economic activities; Rendille.
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Studies on the Environmental Change and Human Activities in Semi-Arid Area of Africa Edited by Kazuharu MIZUNO


pp. 1 PREFACE
Kazuharu MIZUNO
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NAMIB DESERT


pp. 3-14 VEGETATION SUCCESSION AND PLANT USE IN RELATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES ALONG THE KUISEB RIVER IN THE NAMIB DESERT Kazuharu MIZUNO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University Kotaro YAMAGATA
Division of Social Studies, Joetsu University of Education ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between environmental change and vegetational succession in the Kuiseb River area of the Namib Desert. The results reveal the following: 1. About 5000–7000 years ago, wetter conditions prevailed in the Kuiseb River basin, forming a wider riverbed than at present. 2. About 600 years ago, a low terrace formed. The low terrace was characterized by the growth of acacia trees and other vegetation, which trapped and accreted aeolian sand. 3. About 400 years ago, the trapped and accumulated sand began to form a sand dune, eventually killing the tree population. 4. At the present time, all of the buried acacia trees have died and have been replaced by salvadora bushes, which continue to trap sand and increase the size of the dune. 5. Plants such as Acacia erioloba, Faidherbia albida, and Acanthosicyos horridus are very important food sources and shade plants for the local Topnaar people and their livestock. The succession of vegetation in response to environmental change has a profound impact on life in the Kuiseb River area, owing to the harsh environmental conditions and scarce plant life in the region.

Key Words:Environmental change; Sand dune; Vegetation succession; Kuiseb River; Topnaar people.

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pp. 15-25 LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE MIDDLE COURSE OF THE KUISEB RIVER IN THE NAMIB DESERT, NAMIBIA Kotaro YAMAGATA
Division of Social Studies, Joetsu University of Education Kazuharu MIZUNO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
The hyperarid to arid Namib Desert extends along the west coast of southern Africa. The Kuiseb River is one of the major ephemeral rivers originating in the interior highland, and crosses the Namib Desert. Fluvial terraces are well developed along the middle reaches of the Kuiseb River near Gobabeb, and are classified into four surfaces: upper (H), middle 1 (M1), middle 2 (M2), and lower (L). Layers of calcrete are founded on the M1 and M2 surfaces, and gypcrete layers are founded on the H surface. Dead tree matter, buried by dune sand on the L surface, dates to 300±60 years BP and 550±50 years BP. The calcareous crusts on the M1 surface date to 5,300±60 years BP and 6,450±50 years BP, and those of the M2 surface date to 22,070±260 years BP. The presence of calcrete suggests that the ground water level was higher when the M1 and M2 surfaces were formed than it is at the present time. Tree size distribution on the L surface demonstrates that the L surface was also formed during a relatively wet period. It may be concluded, therefore, that these fluvial terraces record the humid periods of ca 22 ka, 5–6.5 ka, and 300–600 years BP in the catchment area of the Kuiseb River. The presence of a water-soluble gypsum crust on the H surface suggests that the paleohydrologic environment of these terrace-forming periods probably involved increased rainfall in the interior highland east of the desert.

Key Words: Namib Desert; Kuiseb River; Ephemeral River; Fluvial Terrace; Calcrete, Dendrochronology; Paleohydrology.

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pp. 27-41 ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES IN RELATION TO TREE DEATH ALONG THE KUISEB RIVER IN THE NAMIB DESERT Kazuharu MIZUNO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The Namib Desert is located along the western coast of Namibia and is affected by the cold Benguela Current. Although forest is distributed along the Kuiseb River in the Namib Desert, many trees are almost dead in some areas. The aim of this research was to clarify the relationship between environmental changes and tree death. The results of the survey are summarized as follows: (1) Many dead trees are located on the riverbanks made of dune sand, which are about 1 m high. (2) Dead trees are located in transitional areas where a northward protrusion of the southern shore is followed by a southward protrusion of the northern shore along the course of the river, in proximity to a sand dune. (3) Floods have eroded the noses of advancing sand dunes of the upper stream and have caused tree death by depositing sand. (4) The date of tree death has been estimated between the late 1970s and the early 1980s by 14C dating. (5) Flood days numbered 33 per year from 1962 to 1975 and 2.7 from 1976 to 1985. The remaining thick sand layer, deposited by the last flood, may be the cause of tree death, given that there was drastic decrease in fl oods since 1976. (6) Tree death has greatly affected people’s lives along the Kuiseb River because they depend on riverside forests as a source of shade, shelter, fuel, and food for humans and livestock.Key Words: Kuiseb River; Namib Desert; Tree death; Flood decrease; Sand deposits; Humans.PDF file of body text (799 KB) (new!)


pp. 43-56 TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF GRASS PRODUCTIVITY IN THE CENTRAL NAMIB DESERTJoh R. HENSCHEL
Gobabeb Training & Research Centre Antje BURKE
Enviroscience Mary SEELY
Desert Research Foundation of Namibia

ABSTRACT
The production of grass was investigated on the gravel plains of the Central Namib Desert, Namibia, during 10 rainfall seasons sampled between 1989–2003. The aim was to evaluate the rainfall-productivity relationship, to elucidate the relationship between temporal and spatial variability, and to examine the spatial scale of patchiness. We compared two different methods and found that a less accurate rapid assessment of grass cover correlat- ed well with measurements of biomass. Our data were in agreement with previous determina- tions of the desert end of the curve of grassland productivity, and productivity was closely related to the rainfall of the particular season. There was high variability between years at study sites, especially in the west (CV=279%), where it rained more seldom than in the east (CV=86%). During all years rainfall was very patchy at a spatial scale of 5 km, which appar- ently reflected the storm path of individual rain clouds. Long-term monitoring should be continued in order to detect changes of pattern in this rainfall-driven system.

Key Words: Rainfall-productivity relationship; Rapid assessment; Grass biomass; Storm cloud size; Patchy rainfall.

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pp. 57-64 ORIGIN OF THE FOG IN NAMIB DESERT IN DRY SEASON Keiji KIMURA
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido UniversityABSTRACT
The origin of the fog in the Namib Desert was generally considered the westerly advection fog over the Benguela cold current. When the author went to the Namib Desert in dry seasons in 2003 and 2004, the fog in the early morning, however, moved easterly from the inland to the Atlantic Ocean. It was the opposite direction of so called the sea fog. In addition to that, the fog in the Namib Desert showed the diurnal change: the fog arises in the early morning and disappeared before noon. The fog was usually driven easterly to the Atlantic Ocean. Through the climatic observation, the following were found for consideration of the origin of the fog on early August, 2004: it is not advection fog but that it is radiation fog. In the daytime, the air which is comparatively moist because of sea breeze moved to the inland, and it is solidified by radiative cooling in the night. Thus, the water vapor runs the fog and it is blown by the land wind to the westward.Key Words: Radiation fog; Advection fog; Namib Desert; Diurnal change; Observation.

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pp. 65-75 CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE !NARA PLANT THAT AFFECT THE LIFE OF THE TOPNAAR PEOPLE IN THE LOWER KUISEB RIVER, NAMIB DESERT Masaaki ITO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The !Nara plant is endemic to the central Namib Desert. The Topnaar people, who live along the Kuiseb River, use this plant in their daily lives, as it serves as a vital source of income, nutrition, and traditional culture. !Nara is virtually the only food source of the Topnaar during harvest time, and cash can be obtained by selling the seeds of the !Nara fruit. In fact, 40% of Topnaar harvesters have no other source of income. A fl ood protection wall was built in 1961 to protect Walvis Bay from flood damage, and a tributary that once flowed to the town was dammed as a result. A large percentage of !Nara was killed, and the crop yield decreased dramatically. The loss of floodwaters following the construction of the wall likely resulted in a decreased moisture supply, causing !Nara vegetation to suffer. It is probably difficult for seeds to germinate owing to the decreased flooding erosion, the increased accumulation of sand, and the lowered groundwater table.Key Words: !Nara; Topnaar; Namib Desert; Flood; Groundwater.PDF file of body text (213 KB) (new!)


NORTHERN NAMIBIA


pp. 77-88 CHANGE IN POPULATION AND LAND-USE INTENSITIES IN SEVERAL VILLAGES OF THE FOUR NORTHERN REGIONS OF NAMIBIA Shigeru ARAKI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
Demographic changes in several rural areas in the four northern regions of Namibia were traced from 1991 to 2001 using national census data. On average, the population growth rate of the surveyed area was 2.77% per year. Although this rate approximated the country’s mean growth rate of 2.64%, the surveyed areas showed significant differences from the mean, ranging from 3.4% to 7.2% per year. A combination of demographic and land use data collected from four representative villages in the study region revealed that rural-to-urban migration on a micro-scale is a significant process in the control of the area’s ecology and economy, and that the percentage of cultivated land is closely tied to population density.Key Words: Namibia; Owamboland; Four northern regions; Population census; Land use intensity.

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pp. 89-105 VEGETATION CHANGES AND USE OF PALMS AS A BUILDING MATERIAL BY OVAMBO AGRO-PASTORALISTS IN NORTH-CENTRAL NAMIBIA Yuichiro FUJIOKA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
This paper focuses on the mutual transition between vegetation and timber use by the Ovambo people in north-central Namibia and their use of palms for timber in recent years. The vegetation around the research area was characterized as Mopane savanna, dominated by Colophospermum mopane. Historically, the Ovambo used mainly Mopane trunks for timber. However, as bush encroachment advanced in some parts of north-central Namibia, residents were forced to collect Mopane timber from the south. Since the 1970s, however, collecting Mopane has become difficult, and the inhabitants have therefore begun to use palm petioles for timber. Because the use of this resource requires many palm petioles, an environment conducive to grow many palms is required to make this option feasible. The vegetation configuration of this environment was formed mainly by three factors: (1) the unique fl ood terrain initially dispersed palm seeds over a wide area, (2) humans involuntarily dispersed seeds after eating, (3) palms were conserved by the residents. Thus, the increased use of palms emerged at a point of intersection between a change in vegetation patterns and a change in plant use by humans. The critical points of this use are its sustainability and the maintenance of traditional building complexity.Key Words: Ovambo; Palm use; Mopane savanna; Vegetation change; Namibia.

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pp. 107-117FARMER’S SELECTION OF LOCAL AND IMPROVED PEARL MILLET VARIETIES IN OVAMBOLAND, NORTHERN NAMIBIA Daisuke UNO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
A new and improved cultivar of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), Okashana-1, was released in Namibia in 1990 and was rapidly adopted in Ovamboland. However, as most farmers do not buy new seeds each year, any genetic trials of the cultivar on actual farms would be affected by cross-pollination. The present study clarified the characteristics of Okashana-1, as found on actual farms. In addition, this research also examined the interrela- tionships between the environmental status, traditions, livelihood, and subsistence activities in the study area and the cultivar characteristics.

Key Words: Okashana-1; Pearl millet; Namibia; Ovamboland.

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NAMIBIA


pp. 119-133 HOLOCENE CLIMATE OF NAMIBIA: A REVIEW BASED ON GEOARCHIVES Klaus HEINE
Institute of Geography, University of Regensburg, Germany ABSTRACT
The Holocene palaeoclimates in Namibia are reviewed by discussing different palaeoclimate geoarchives. The available evidence suggests little climatic fl uctuations during the Holocene. There is evidence of more humidity compared to today during the early Holocene. Short dry episodes occurred around 8 14C-ka BP and around 5–3 14C-ka BP. Since 1000 years the northern Benguela Current sea surface temperatures show a decline and since ca. 500 years Namibia experienced in the Namib Desert and adjacent areas more arid condi- tions than before. Extreme fl ash floods occurred more frequently during the Little Ice Age, probably correlating to variations of sun spot activity.Key Words: Holocene; Geoarchives; Palaeoclimate; Namibia.

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pp. 135-151 FACTORS CONTROLLING GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION IN SAVANNA VEGETATION IN NAMIBIA Susumu OKITSU
Faculty of Horticulture, Chiba University ABSTRACT
Here, I describe the geographical distribution of the savanna types in Namibia and identify the factors controlling the occurrence of each savanna type in relation to the amount of annual precipitation and the various physiographical regions, including the mopane (Colophospermum mopane) area. The different types of savanna can be distinguished on the basis of the leaf habits of the dominant vegetation: deciduous, evergreen nanophyll, and evergreen notophyll. In general, vegetation performance (i.e., vegetation cover and maximum height) was positively correlated with the amount of annual precipitation. However, the occurrence of a particular savanna type coincided well with physiographical region regardless of the amount of annual precipitation received. Deciduous savanna occurred primarily in the Central Highland and had the smallest total vegetation cover among the three types. The dry soil of this region determined inevitably the deciduous leaf habit of the vegetation during the dry season and thus the smallest total vegetation cover. Evergreen nanophyll savanna was found mainly in the Mega Kalahari, where I observed a clear relationship between the amount of annual precipitation and total vegetation cover. The soil moisture in this region favored an evergreen leaf habit, even in the dry season, resulting in the effective use of soil water throughout the year. This probably accounted for the large increase in total vegetation cover with increasing annual precipitation. Evergreen notophyll savanna exclusively appeared in the mopane area, regardless of the physiographical region, and had the largest total vegetation cover, apparently as a result of the ecological characteristics of mopane. Therefore, it appears that the geographical distribution of the various savanna types in Namibia is principally controlled by two different factors that are independent of the amount of annual precipitation: the water-holding capacity of the soil and the ecological characteristics of mopane.Key Words: Annual precipitation; Colophospermum mopane; Deciduous tree; Evergreen nanophyll; Evergreen notophyll; Savanna.

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pp. 153-163 OBSERVATION OF RIPARIAN VEGETATION IN WESTERN NAMIBIA BY USING NDVI AND NDWI DERIVED FROM SPOT-VEGETATION Hiroyuki YOSHIDA
Faculty of Policy Management, Keio University ABSTRACT
Ephemeral rivers in western Namibia are unique entities that support both natural vegetation and human activities. This paper presents an approach for observing riparian vegetation along them synoptically using remotely sensed datasets, derived from a satellite borne sensor named SPOT-VEGETATION. The most commonly used vegetation index, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), certainly delineates the overall distribution of vegetation, but not without errors. A vegetation index that was designed as a supplement for NDVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), showed some interesting features, but again, with faults. By synthesizing the two indices, the scarce and sparse vegetation in coastal deserts and the relatively dense vegetation in inland highlands could be effi ciently observed. Furthermore, by introducing a fl ow accumulation model produced from a digital elevation model (DEM), it became possible to observe such riparian vegetation quantitatively and systematically.Key Words: Riparian vegetation; Ephemeral rivers; Flow accumulation model; Namibia; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; Normalized Difference Water Index; SPOTVEGETATION.

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AFRICA


pp. 165-181 CLIMATE ANOMALIES AND EXTREME EVENTS IN AFRICA IN 2003, INCLUDING HEAVY RAINS AND FLOODS THAT OCCURRED DURING NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SUMMER Hiroshi KADOMURA
Emeritus Professor, Tokyo Metropolitan University ABSTRACT
The climate of 2003, particularly during Northern Hemisphere summer, was marked by exceptionally abnormal events throughout the world, and Africa was no exception. As record heat waves prevailed over Europe, heavy rains and floods occurred over the west-central Sahara, across the Sudano-Sahelian region and western Kenya, while drought conditions gripped the Guinea Coast and southeastern Southern Africa, and cold waves hit southern South Africa. Among the most remarkable events were record rainfall in the western portion of the Sahara-Sahel and drought conditions over the Guinea Coast that were both caused by an extreme northward penetration of the ITCZ relative to normal years. In addition, record-breaking cold weather occurred in southern South Africa in mid-August by a strong extratropical cyclone accompanied by a cold front. During Southern Hemisphere summer, Madagascar, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi frequently experienced heavy rains and fl oods associated with tropical cyclones and their remnants. More than 550 people died and over 2.5 million were displaced because of fl oods in Africa in 2003. Africa’s vulnerability to climate hazards could be reduced through enhancements of both short- and long-term coping strategies, climate monitoring and early warning systems, fl ood control infrastructures, and other disaster preparedness measures at all levels, including sub-regional, national, and local levels. Mechanisms that caused various events in Africa in 2003, events which can be viewed as regional responses in Africa to anthropogenic global warming, must be explored from the perspective of global change.Key Words: Climate anomalies; Extreme events; Heavy rains; Floods; Northern Hemisphere summer 2003.

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pp. 183-193 A VEGETATION-MAINTAINING SYSTEM AS A LIVELIHOOD STRATEGY AMONG THE SEREER, WEST-CENTRAL SENEGAL Masaaki HIRAI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University ABSTRACT
A fi eld study of the system of maintaining vegetation practiced by the Sereer people was conducted from October 2001 to July 2002 at N village, located in the Thiès Department of west-central Senegal. For centuries, the Sereer people have practiced millet cultivation in combination with livestock raising and have maintained a unique form of artifi cial vegetation, dominated by the tree Acacia albida. The aim of this study was to reveal how the Sereer use and maintain the vegetation. Acacia albida contributes to their livelihood in several ways by functioning, for example, as a green manure and as fodder for livestock. The Sereer deliberately maintain the vegetation through “yar”, which means to grow Acacia albida seedlings in cultivated fi elds. A “yar” behavior is one associated with “upbringing” in the Sereer idiom. Use of this tree up to the 1970s helped to make the Sereer livelihood system more secure in an erratic, semi-arid climate.Key Words: Senegal; Sereer; Acacia albida; Livelihood activities; Vegetation-maintaining system.

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pp. 195-212 VEGETATION SUCCESSION IN RELATION TO GLACIAL FLUCTUATION IN THE HIGH MOUNTAINS OF AFRICA Kazuharu MIZUNO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto UniversityABSTRACT
Dramatic changes are taking place in the glacier-covered high mountains of Africa. The glacier-covered area on Kilimanjaro is now only half as large as it was in the 1970s. The Tyndall Glacier on Mt. Kenya, which retreated at approx. 3 m yr–1 from 1958 to 1997, retreated at ca. 10 m yr–1 from 1997 to 2002. Pioneer species such as Senecio keniophy- tum, Arabis alpina, mosses, lichen, and Agrostis trachyphylla have advanced over areas formerly covered by the glacier. The rate at which this vegetation migrated up the former bed of the glacier (2.1–4.6 m yr–1 from 1958 to 1997) is similar to the rate of glacial retreat (2.9 m yr–1). In the interval from 1997 to 2002, pioneer species advanced at a rapid rate of 6.4 –12.2 m yr–1 when the glacier retreated at 9.8 m yr–1. Rapid glacial retreat has been accompa- nied by rapid colonization by plants. Pioneer species improve soil conditions and make habi- tat suitable for other plants. If warming continues, alpine plant cover may extend all the way to mountain summits, and then eventually diminish as trees colonize the areas formerly occupied by the alpine plants. Larger woody plants such as Senecio keniodendron and Lobelia telekii, which showed no obvious advances before 1997, have advanced quickly since 1997.Key Words: Vegetation; Deglaciation, Global warming; Environmental change; Alpine zone; Africa.

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No. 29(2005)


Environment, Livelihood and Local Praxis in Asia and Africa.
Edited by Masayoshi SHIGETA and Yntiso GEBRE


PrefaceMasayoshi SHIGETA and Yntiso GEBRE
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pp.1-18AREA STUDIES APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF THE ENVIRONMENT, LIVELIHOODS, AND LOCAL PRAXIS IN ASIA AND AFRICA: HISTORY AND PROGRESS AT KYOTO UNIVERSITY AND ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITYMasayoshi SHIGETA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
GEBRE Yntiso
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University
ABSTRACT
This is the introductory paper to “Environment, Livelihoods, and Local Praxis in Asia and Africa” and it focuses on the approaches to Area Studies currently used at Kyoto University, Japan, and Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, with special reference to their historical background and progress. A formal program in Asian and African Area Studies was established at Kyoto University in the Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies (ASAFAS) in 1998, and it has produced several Ph.D. graduates. The Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology (SOSA) at Addis Ababa University was established in 1962, and the MA program in Social Anthropology (SOAN) was launched in 1990. Whereas SOSA studies focus mainly on anthropological and sociological studies within Ethiopia, ASAFAS covers Asian and African countries. The background to these two institutions, their establishment and accomplishments, and the thematic focus and geographic coverage are overviewed. Finally, the organization of this volume and the contents of each paper are summarized.
Key Words: Africa; Area studies; Asia; Ethiopia; Post-graduate program.

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pp. 19-30COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN REHABILITATION, CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF MANGROVES: LESSONS FROM COASTAL AREAS OF SOUTH SULAWESI, INDONESIAAndi Amri
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Local people in Tongke Tongke of Sinjai District, located on southeast coast of South Sulawesi (Indonesia), began to rehabilitate the coastal condition through mangrove plantation following example of the Pangasa villagers. They extended plantation plots step by step by planting seedlings of Rhizophora mucronata and succeeded in establishing mangrove forests Nowadays, they can provide mangrove seedlings to other districts in South Sulawesi, such as Bulukumba, Maros and Bantaeng, through mangrove rehabilitation programs supported by the Department of Forestry. The study was carried out in areas where mangrove conservation and rehabilitation were initiated and promoted collaboratively by both local people and governmental institutions in order to clarify the role of community participation in utilization, conservation and management of mangroves. Since mangrove conservation requires long–term maintenance, the expectation of local people in terms of both short-term and long-term economic benefits to be obtained from mangrove rehabilitation should be taken into consideration.
Key Words: Community participation; Mangrove rehabilitation; Economic benefit; Coastal resource management; South Sulawesi.

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pp. 31-40DIFFERING LOCAL ATTITUDES TOWARD CONSERVATION POLICY: A CASE STUDY OF MAGO NATIONAL PARK, ETHIOPIA Nobuko NISHIZAKI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University /Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
ABSTRACT
Communities are now the focal point of conservationist thinking. In this paper I present a recent cooperative attitude of a community toward wildlife conservation in southwestern Ethiopia. Moreover, attempts are made to analyze the historical relationships between the community and the park authority. No severe conflicts arose between the park authority and the villagers until the 1990s. The relationships could have worsened considerably when hunting in the Mago National Park intensified after the regime change in 1991. However, it was also at this point that the villagers began to reduce their direct use of the natural resources in the park. Then, relationships of both sides have taken a new turn. New form of leadership in the community is now able to deal effectively with the conservation issues.
Key Words: Wildlife conservation; Local attitudes; Hunting; Southwestern Ethiopia.

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pp. 41-51NATURE CONSERVATION AND HUNTER GATHERERS’ LIFE IN CAMEROONIAN RAINFORESTShiho HATTORI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The policy and strategy of nature conservation projects in Africa have been changing due to various failed cases since the colonial period. “Collaborative management” with the local populations and “adaptive management” to the changing local conditions are introduced as progressive approaches in the conservation project of southeastern Cameroon. The Baka hunter-gatherers who are directly influenced by the project, are expected to be future conservators by the conservation agent. However, they do not show much interest in the project. One of the main factors for their indifference lies in the contents of the project, which does not take into consideration the actual life of the Baka. The Baka not only depend on a variety of forest resources, but also on farm and industrial products. Zoning of land-use patterns and hunting regulations are not compatible with the Baka life, which is characterized by nomadism and heavy dependence on forest animals for food and cash income. Moreover, environmental education in a top-down way with an intermediary of dominant farmer agents may lead to reinforcing or reproducing the existing subordinate relationship of the Baka with the neighboring farmers. These points should be taken into consideration for designing an effective conservation plan.
Key Words: Baka hunter-gatherers; Conservation project; Collaborative management; Zoning of land use; Hunting regulation.

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pp. 53-60 ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PENAN BENALUI OF EAST KALIMANTAN, INDONESIA: DIFFERENCE OF ETHNOBOTANICAL KNOWLEDGE AMONG VILLAGERS OF LONG BELAKA Miyako KOIZUMI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Penan Benalui of East Kalimantan are a subgroup of Western Penan, one of the hunter-gatherer groups of Borneo in Indonesia. The Penan Benalui were nomads living in the forest of the interior part of Borneo until they settled down in villages in the 1960s. During the fieldwork in a Penan Benalui village in 2002, about 560 species of wild plants were collected and their ethnobotanical features were documented. Informants could identify most of the plants and gave about 550 local names. About 75% of the plants were reported to be in use and there were about 70 different uses. The difference in ethnobotanical knowledge was large between men and women of the younger generation. Men knew plants better than women. This was probably because men still go to the forests very often for hunting and gathering while women spend more time in the village.
Key Words: Ethnobotany; Penan; Borneo.

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pp. 61-72 WOMEN’S CRAFT GUILDS AND THE TRADITIONAL BASKETRY (GE MOT) OF HARAR, ETHIOPIA Belle ASANTE
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Traditional Harari basketry (ge mot) continues to be a highly praised craft within the Harari ethnic group. However, between the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, a sharp decline in weaving among the younger generation of women became apparent to outside researchers, NGOs and the Harari alike. Moreover, the production of several ge mot styles seems to have been significantly reduced in those waning years of craft production. By the late 1990s, there was an attempt to preserve the material culture of the Harari people, and also provide a forum for groups of Harari women to gain greater economic self-reliance through craft work. The three women’s weavers associations that were established within the old walled city of Harar at that time are still functioning. These fairly recently formed Harari women’s craft guilds have yet to be effectively documented, yet their contributions to the preservation of the Harari way of life may be profound. After an introduction to ge mot, its functions, styles and indicators of a decline in production, this paper will highlight some organizational differences, challenges, and successes of the three Harari women weaver’s guilds.
Key Words: Harar; Ethiopia; Basketry; Women’s craft guilds.

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pp. 73-81 LEARNING PROCESS OF POTTERY MAKING AMONG ARI PEOPLE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA Morie KANEKO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Pots of Ari people are considered essential utilities in their daily lives. Women artisans, who belong to the socially segregated group called mana, are exclusively engaged in pottery making. In this paper, I describe the forming-technique and the learning process of pottery making among girls by focusing on the fine movement of pottery makers’ hands and fingers, the making-stages, the making-processes and the learning orders by classifying the variety of pots. I found four characteristics of forming-techniques and learning processes among young pottery makers. First, 20 units of processes (‘U.P’) and four making-stages were common to all the pottery makers. Second, pottery makers do not learn each making stage step by step. From the very begining, they do all the making stages to form the whole shape of a pot. Third, according to the finger movement analysis, pottery makers could learn how to make different sizes and shapes of pots by using the 20 ‘U.P’. Fourth, although they say they have a certain degree of difficulty in forming various shapes of pots, young pottery makers do not follow a consistent order of learning. Each maker follows different sequential orders. Even sisters do not seem to pursue a consistent learning order. Pottery making is not just about technology as people attach social, cultural, and economic meanings to it.
Key Words: Forming-technique; Making process; Finger movement patterns; Unit of ‘Process’ ; Learning process.

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pp. 83-94 WOMEN WORKING AT HAIRDRESSING: A CASE STUDY OF A RAPIDLY INCREASING BUSINESS AMONG WOMEN IN URBAN GHANA Yukiyo ODA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
For a long time, economic activities have been important for women in southern Ghana to support their children and themselves. Among women’s activities in urban areas, hairdressing is the one that has flourished recently. The study examines socio-economic and other factors that have resulted in this rapid increase of hairdressing, especially from the perspective of the entrants’ reason for occupational choice. Findings show that hairdressing has become attractive to women not only as a source of income but also because of its flexibility and compatibility with domestic work. Diffusion of hair relaxing has influence on the increase of salon demand. Institutionalisation of hairdressing training system also has impact on attracting young people who have begun to regard hairdressing as a skilled, fashionable and modern occupation. As a result, hairdressing apprenticeship has became one of the major recourses for women with basic education.
Key Words: Ghana; Women’s economic activity; Hairdressing; Structural Adjustment Pr ogramme; Apprenticeship.

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pp. 95-105 A STUDY ON THE SHIFTING CULTIVATION SYSTEM IN KALAHARI WOODLAND, WESTERN ZAMBIA, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CASSAVA MANAGEMENT Rumiko MURAO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The Kalahari Sands found all over southern Africa have been described as not being suitable for agriculture. However, Kalahari woodland developed on the same Kalahari sands of western Zambia and Angolan immigrants who escaped the war settled on the woodland. Their livelihoods are dependent on growing cassava, their staple and cash crop. The cassava grown by the Angolan immigrants on the Kalahari Sands depends on the natural nutrients in the sandy soils. The cultivation system established by the immigrants on rather poor soils is closely related to the social organization of the immigrants. This paper thus examines not only the cultivation system, but also their social organization supporting the system by reciprocal help in the poor environment.
Key Words: Kalahari Sands; Kalahari woodland; Angolan immigrants; Cassava cuttings; Social organization.

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pp. 107-113 INTERACTION OF FORMAL EDUCATION WITH THE HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY IN RURAL ETHIOPIA: THE CASE OF THE WOYISSO-QANCAARA, EAST SHOWA ZONE OF OROMIA REGION Daniel Hailu
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University
ABSTRACT
In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in enthusiasm for formal education among the rural community of Woyisso-Qancaara. This means that formal education, as an institution that evolved in an alien culture, is coming into closer interaction with the social and economic realities of the inhabitants of Woyisso-Qancaara. Among the implications of this interaction is the ascription of a new status and role of a student on school-going children, which is disturbing the traditional household division of labor. It will be noted that by sending their children to schools, households are forced to incur the opportunity cost of forgoing the immediate use of the labor of their children. The paper describes some mechanisms by which households cope with the resulting labor shortfall. Other than forgoing the labor of their children, parents also needed to invest part of their income on the schooling of their children. The opportunity cost of forgoing labor and the actual cost of supporting schooling combine with the decrease in the average income of households and the rise in population to weaken the economy of households in Woyisso-Qancaara.
Key Words: Formal education; Woyisso-Qancaara; Labor; Opportunity cost; Household income/ economy.

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pp. 115-124 LIVELIHOOD CHANGE IN A PHILIPPINE COCONUT FARMING VILLAGE: A CASE STUDY IN LAGUNA PROVINCE Miho FUJII
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
This is a study on livelihood transformation in a rural village in the Philippines. It documents the economy of the village during the period of the late 1960s to the 1990s. While the coconut industry has been a major source of livelihood in this village, the village people still sought other economic opportunities. From the 1960s, they worked as seasonal workers in lowland farms, planted vegetables in the mountains, and raised hogs. This research shows that livelihood transformation in this village was facilitated by a combination of several factors: desire of the people to continuously improve their economic situation, opportunities offered by improved infrastructure such as roads, existence of markets for their products (vegetables, hogs), and the favorable land conditions within and in the surrounding areas of the village. The livelihood of this village is not solely dependent on an export-oriented coconut industry, but rather on the wise use of the land and the economic opportunities offered by the domestic market.
Key Words: Coconut industry; Vegetable farming; Upland; Economic transformation.

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pp. 125-135 LAND DISPUTES SETTLEMENT IN A PLURAL ‘INSTITUTIONAL’ SETTING: THE CASE OF ARSII OROMO OF KOKOSSA DISTRICT, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA Mamo Hebo
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
Land tenure policies are highly contentious political issues in Ethiopia. Most of the debates dwell on the public/state versus private land ownership options. At present, although ‘public’ land ownership is the only officially recognized one, people may also acquire land through inheritance in the framework of customary rules. One of the outcomes of co-existence(but without integration) of the state instituted land rights and the custombacked ones is the proliferation of disputes over land. This paper attempts to focus on such land disputes and mechanisms of land disputes resolution, taking the case of Kokossa district of Oromia Regional State in Ethiopia. Since 1991, disputes over land have been rampant in Kokossa district. These disputes appear before plural settings for the subsequent settlement. These plural settings can generally be categorized into two: formal, which refers to structures and associated rules that represent the state at various levels, and informal, that refers to institutions(with associated norms) that can be grouped under such generic terms as indigenous, customary or local. In this paper, I briefly discuss the current state of land disputes in Kokossa district and answer the following questions: (1) How do people employ, and sometimes manipulate, the plural settings for disputes settlement? (2) How do these settings for dispute settlement interact? (3) What does the existence of these plural dispute settlement settings mean to the disputants and to the processes of dispute settlement?
Key Words: Land disputes; Dispute settlement; Formal settings; Informal settings; Plural i nstitutional setting; Arsii Oromo.

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pp. 137-142 MUSICAL PERFORMANCE AND SELF-DESIGNATION OF ETHIOPIAN MINSTRELS: AZMARI Itsushi KAWASE
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The performance of Ethiopian minstrels (Azmari) in the Gondar area of Northern Ethiopia can be seen in various social settings including life cycle celebrations, annual events of the Ethiopian Orthodox church, Zar-spirit possession, etc. The abundance of musical activities counters the dominant image of Azmari as musicians just found in local bars. Moreover, Azmari in Gondar share a self-designation based on genealogical ties. The paper treats their folk category as well as genealogy and code of communication as self-imposed group markers that strictly distinguish the in-group. The paper tries to reconstruct the people who have been known as “Azmari” from the above perspectives.
Key Words: Musical activities; Azmari; Self-imposed group markers.

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pp. 143-155 SHARED EXPERIENCES AND THE RECONSTRUCTION OF SOCIAL CATEGORIES: A CASE STUDY OF COMPLEX ETHNIC IDENTITY AMONG THE ARIAAL PASTORALISTS IN NORTHERN KENYA Naoki NAITO
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
This essay examines the dynamics of the face-to-face inter-ethnic relationship in a multi-ethnic situation among pastoralists of Northern Kenya. Segmentary descent system is a well known characteristic of East African pastoral society as a means of social interaction (Evans-Pritchard, 1940). As a charactaristic of these systems, each segment (ethnic group, clan, sub-clan, lineage) according to patrilineal descent is sequenced in a highly hierarchical way, and categorizes people clearly with behavior norms (marriage, cohabitation, cooperation etc.). Clanship is especially important in every aspect of their lives. The Ariaal in the Mars abit district of northern Kenya have been reported as being a mixture of the Samburu and Rendille pastoralists as the historical result of migration and alliance between them (Spencer, 1973; Fratkin, 1991). Both the Samburu and Rendille societies have their own segmental descent system. In the Ariaal, people choose parts of both the Samburu and Rendille segmental descent systems. The subject of this essay is the process by which people dismantle preexisting categories and reconstruct them. People have a sense of belonging to their clan, but it depends on the relationships, which are made in two ways. One way creates a sense of belonging by depending on the relationship between segments, including clans. The other way is to create a sense of belonging by depending on individual experience. People create a sense of belonging individually by sharing the experience of cooperating in herding, settling and ceremonies. People can create a sense of belonging somehow by depending on the relationship between segments. This sense of belongingness by depending on the segments as a social category can be interpreted and manipulated in any form. Then, such a category itself would lose actual meaning. It is assumed that people will continue to believe in their descent system, but also create a new sense of belongingness based on shared personal experiences.
Key Words: Sharing experience; Face-to-face interaction; Sharing category; Clanship; Interethnic relationship; East African pastoral society; Segmentary descent system.

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pp. 157-168 MAKING AND UNMAKING OF THE NATION-STATE AND ETHNICITY IN MODERN ETHIOPIA: A STUDY ON THE HISTORY OF THE SILTE PEOPLE Makoto NISHI
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
This paper attempts to explain some aspects of the shifting relationship between the state system and ethnicity in modern Ethiopia through a study of the history of the Silte people. Traditionally, the Silte are a Muslim people sharing perceived genealogical ties. In the early 20th century, the people started to engage in coffee trading between Sidama and Addis Abeba. It was when their trade activity was caught up in the realm of state polity that they obtained the identity of the Gurage, an ethnic group that played a significant role in the national economy. At the turn of the century, the people engaged in the politics of identity under the federal system introduced by EPRDF, the ruling party of Ethiopia. Again, it was when the movement was captured by party ideology that Silte Nationality was firmly established. Ethnic identity is often created in the divergence between people’s activities to make their own living and the state ideology. The endeavor empowering ethnicity in such a context often places the people in a dilemma – they are compelled to choose to practice the state ideology in a faithful manner or to remain in the “wilderness” of local conflict over resources and identity.
Key Words: Ethnicity; Nation-State; Empowerment; Civil society; Ethiopia.

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pp. 169-183 NEGOTIATING SOCIAL SPACE: SEX-WORKERS AND THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF SEX WORK IN ADDIS ABABA Bethlehem Tekola
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University
ABSTRACT
This paper explores the social life of sex workers in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. It focuses on the social ties between sex workers and a variety of other people, such as their family members, relatives, roommates, neighbors, coworkers, and clients. It explores these social ties in terms of the way they are (1) affirmed and reinforced, (2) strained and broken, and (3) initiated and cultivated by the women as a result of their engagement in sex work. The main thesis of the work is that sex workers share the same social milieu and value system with non-sex workers and that, despite severe constraints put on them by poverty and very difficult working conditions, they struggle on a daily basis to have a social life and social relevance. The work critiques the very common castigation of sex workers as social misfits who pose dangers to society and proposes a humane approach towards them and their dependents, an approach that should begin by making a clear distinction between the institution of commercial sex and the women who practice it.
Key Words: Addis Ababa; Commercial sex; Sex work; Social ties; ‘Prostitution’.

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pp. 185-191 BEGGING AS A MEANS OF LIVELIHOOD: CONFERRING WITH THE POOR AT THE ORTHODOX RELIGIOUS CEREMONIAL DAYS IN ADDIS ABABA Woubishet Demewozu
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University
ABSTRACT
The present ethnographic account, written with insight and sympathy, of the life and problems of the poorest beggars examines life on the street corner, a frontier that was beginning to be made to forcedly and violently vanish by the government after the field work for this study was completed. As such, attempts were made to picture the life of the urban poor on the streets and churchyards of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia. The problem of beggary has a lot to do with the country’s socio-economic and historical trajectories of poverty characterized by low incomes, high unemployment rates, fast-rising cost of living, high rates of population growth, inappropriate public policies and continued rural-urban migration and displacement. The beggars as impoverished underclass presently find themselves in extreme and multifaceted destitution: chronic food shortage and insecurity, illiteracy, homelessness or poor housing often on unsuitable land, disease, unsanitary living conditions, death and above all marginalization and exclusion. The actions and reactions of the destitute beggars are largely restricted to their own habitat; in the social milieu in which they are surviving by themselves within the limits of the larger society by which they are surrounded, from which they are, in large part, outcasts. Social interactions, lacking depth both in the past and in the present, are reflected in terms of support, competition and conflict. Ownership of the poverty agenda, short-term and long-term planning and programming, and sustainability are not likely to come about unless people, and particularly the elites are aware of the dimensions of the problem, have considered and discussed the many causes involved, and have themselves developed programmes and organizational structures for monitoring poverty and implementing pro-poor policies.
Key Words: Begging; Means of livelihood; Conferring with the poor; Orthodox religious ce remonial days; Addis Ababa.

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pp. 193-203 SOCIO-CULTURAL DIMENSIONS OF DISPLACEMENT: THE CASE OF DISPLACED PERSONS IN ADDIS ABABA Dinku Lemessa
Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Addis Ababa University
ABSTRACT
It is estimated that 1.67 million Ethiopians were displaced between 1991 and 1994. The wars between Ethiopia and Eritrea, for example, resulted in the displacement of thousands of families from their homes in Eritrea. Some of these persons have been rehabilitated and reintegrated into their respective communities. But an overwhelming majority is still living in tents, Kebele Halls, grain stores, plastic shelters, and on streets. At present, they are living in untold misery. Despite the magnitude of the problems of displaced persons (commonly called the ‘tefenakkai’, literally ‘the uprooted’), there is no adequate or comprehensive information on their social and economic situation. In the absence of this, it is difficult to plan long-term rehabilitation programs, which are instrumental for reduction of urban impoverishment and anomie. In Ethiopia, very little attention has been accorded to displacement – a social process that disrupts social order. This paper tries to address the socio-cultural dimensions of displacement in Addis Ababa, with particular reference to the Mekanissa-Qorre area. This group is the largest of the 16 similar displaced groups in the city. Women and children who constitute the largest part of the displaced receive a special emphasis in this paper.
Key Words: War; Displacement; Impoverishment; Anomie; Rehabilitation.

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pp. 205-215 THE TRADE OF SECOND-HAND CLOTHES IN THE LOCAL MEGA CITY MWANZA, TANZANIA: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE SOCIAL NETWORKS OF MALI KAULI TRANSACTION Sayaka OGAWA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to examine the social relationships of people in a small-scale commercial sector called Machinga by analyzing the unique credit transaction in the trade of second-hand clothes in Mwanza city. The credit transaction described in this presentation is called Mali kauli and is conducted by middlemen and micro-scale retail traders. Previous studies of the urban informal sector argued that credit transactions tend to be conducted by closed groups based on kinship and ethnicity. However, the Mali Kauli transaction is basically formed of purely business relationships and economic rationality rather than relationships originating in rural society. Mali Kauli transaction brings a lot of economic benefits to both middlemen and retailers. On the other hand, this practice has potential for friction because it creates business transactions among people with unreliable relationships. In conclusion, I suggest that the newly-created urban group solidarities such as Machinga generated through Mali Kauli transaction to attain stable transaction, satisfy economic interest, and promote reciprocal help in urban areas.
Key Words: Urban social network; Group solidarity; Informal sector; Second hand clothes; Credit transaction.

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No. 28 (2003)


Recent Advances in Central African Hunter- Gatherer Research Edited by Mitsuo ICHIKAWA and Daiji KIMURA


pp. 1-8 INTRODUCTION:Recent Advances in Central African Hunter-Gatherer ResearchMitsuo ICHIKAWA
Daiji KIMURA
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INDIGENOUS CULTURE


pp. 7-24 Names, Use and Attributes of Plants and Animals among the Ituri Forest Foragers: A Comparative Ethnobotanical and Ethnozoological Study Hideaki TERASHIMA
Kobe Gakuin UniversityABSTRACT
Ethnobotanical and ethnozoological surveys have been conducted from the 1970s among Ituri forest hunter-gatherers, the Mbuti and Efe, revealing interesting points on the relationships between the hunter-gatherers and the flora and fauna. In this paper, names, use and attributes given to plants and animals by the foragers are described and compared. Although the Efe and the Mbuti use completely diiferent languages now, not a few names, uses and attributes of plants and animals are common to both groups. It has become clear that the use of plants and attributes given to animals are more durable than the names in the transition of their culture through contact with farmers. The common names, uses and attributes may suggest the existence of original Pygmy words and plant and animal culture in the Ituri forest.Key Words: Efe; Mbuti; Tropical rain forest; Plant names; Animal names; Plant use; Animal attributes; Original Pygmy language.

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pp. 25-35 Bakas’Mode of Co-Presence Daiji KIMURA
Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto UniversityABSTRACT
The characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies have been discussed previously within the framework of social structure or in relation to various “-isms,” such as egalitarianism. Eschewing this relatively rigid structure, this report focuses on the fluid daily social interaction of the Baka Pygmies of southeastern Cameroon. First, their spatially diffusive conversation in the forest camp or roadside village is described. Then the relative calmness, and high degree of resonance, of their interactions are discussed, based on the results of analysis using the time-sampling method and video image analysis. It is conjectured that living under such “multi-connected” conditions may cause them to face an “explosion of processing effort,” in responding to the tangled interactional relationships that characterize their community. The sophisticated resonance observed in these interactions is thought to be an ethno-method for diminishing the impact of such complexity. This viewpoint is discussed in relation to hunter-gatherers’ socio-ecological way of life.Key Words: Baka Pygmies; Cameroon; Hunter-Gatherers; Parallel distributed interaction.

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RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER SOCIETIES


pp. 37-56 Interethnic Relations in Southeastern Cameroon: Challenging the “Hunter- Gatherer” – “Farmer” Dichotomy Stephanie RUPP
National University of Singapore
ABSTRACT
By slotting forest communities into reductive categories such as “hunter-gatherer” / “farmer” and “pygmy” / “villager,” analyses of social relations in tropical forests are reduced to two dimensions based on contrasting subsistence strategies and polar relations of power. As a result of this flattened perspective of the social landscape, other ways of reckoning social relations as expressed by contemporary forest peoples may be rendered analytically invisible and ideologically irrelevant to outside observers and analysts. This paper examines the formation and transformation of social relationships among Bangando, Baka, Bakw´el´e, and Mbomam, four distinct communities that intermingle in the forests of southeastern Cameroon. Far from conforming to these simplified, paired classifications of social identity based on presumed economic strategies and political relationships, the diverse communities of southeastern Cameroon pursue numerous and flexible production techniques, engage in manifold and changing relationships, and identify self and other in multiple and shifting ways. This paper demonstrates that, rather than maintaining strict ethnic divisions according to subsistence production, Bangando, Baka, Bakw´el´e, and Mbomam individuals participate in interfamilial, interethnic, and interregional networks that are social, economic, ritual, and political in nature.Key Words: Ethnicity; Identity; Cameroon; Bangando; Baka.PDF file of body text (139 KB) (new!)


pp. 57-79 The Framework of Central African Hunter-Gatherers and Neighbouring Societies Daou V. JOIRIS
Universit´e Libre de BruxellesABSTRACT
This article presents a synthesis of available information about the framework of relations between Pygmy peoples and neighbouring local communities called “villagers” or “farmers.” From an epistemological point of view, the literature is more detailed about the origin of that relationship than about the analysis of its framework. From an ethnographic viewpoint, a comparison of the two most researched case studies in different cultural settings provides evidence of the existence of a similar relational interethnic model in the Congo River basin. This model involves both aspects of the “ideology of solidarity,” sustained by links of pseudo-kinship, and of the “ideology of domination,” political-economic dominance over the Pygmy peoples by the “villagers.” The relationship also appears fluid in that it allows a multiplicity of partnerships. The interethnic relational model suits an environment of mobility and of acephalous political organization. The author argues that the model is not specific to hunter-gatherer societies, nor to Pygmy communities in general, but rather to Pygmy groups in regular contact with villager communities characterised by mobility and non-hierarchical political organization.Key Words:Pygmies; Non-Pygmy neighbors; Inter-ethnic relations; Hunter-gatherers; Central Africa; Pseudo-kinship; Subordination.

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CHANGES IN A MODERN CONTEXT


pp. 81-121 Relocated to the Roadside: Preliminary Observations on the Forest Peoples of Gabon Judy KNIGHT
Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, The University of OxfordABSTRACT
The Forest Peoples of Gabon (commonly referred to as the Pygmies) have, until recently, attracted little attention in the academic forum. It seems it is widely assumed that these groups are largely assimilated into dominant neighbouring ethnic groups and have consequently adopted new cultural practices and lost many of their own (Anderson, 1983). Recent research has revealed a range of socio-economic situations including forest-based semi-nomadic communities who combine hunting and gathering with shifting cultivation. However, the majority of Gabon’s Forest Peoples have moved to the roadside, and where the last forest-based groups remain, relocation is inevitable or in process. Integrating ideas of history both exogenous and local, the aim of this paper is to consider the reasons why the Forest Peoples of Gabon have been relocated to the roadside in both academic and real terms. Based on recent fieldwork it provides preliminary observations on: the present distribution, settlement patterns and subsistence strategies of the Forest Peoples of Gabon; the processes by which they have been (and continue to be) relocated; and the effects of their various efforts to accept or reject inclusion.Key Words: Pygmies, Gabon, Relocation, Assimilation, Conservation.

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pp. 123-141 Watershed, Weddings and Workforces: Migration, Sedentarization, and Social Change among the BaAka of Southwestern Central African Republic Anna L. KRETSINGER
Department of Social Anthropology, University of Edinburgh
Rebecca HARDIN
Harvard Academy for International and Area StudiesABSTRACT
This brief demographic history of the BaAka pygmies of the Dzanga-Sangha Dense Forest Reserve analyses the BaAka’s engagement with capital and the extent to which it influences immigration. The BaAka villages within the reserve have been influenced differently by coffee and timber boom/bust cycles. We superimpose local economic history with demographic data, then using five parameters; residence, place of origin, estimated year of birth, sex and parental place of origin, we seek to establish whether different immigration patterns are due to different local economies. Also discussed are the effects of local economies on traditional marriage migration patterns. We conclude that immigration patterns do change over time probably due to demands for labor in conjunction with preexisting marriage alliances.Key Words: BaAka; Pygmy; Bayanga; Immigration; Migration; Labor.

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pp. 143-157 Cultivation by the Baka Hunter-Gatherers in the Tropical Rain Forest of Central Africa Koichi KITANISHI
Faculty of Education, Yamaguchi UniversityABSTRACT
The Baka in southeastern Cameroon are one of the “Pygmy” hunter-gatherer groups living in the tropical rain forest of central Africa. The Baka are said to have accepted cultivation with their own fields in the 1950s. Their cultivation is unplanned and haphazard, due to longer time lapse between labor investment and return for cultivation than for hunting-gathering. This difference was one of the obstacles for adoption of cultivation with their own fields, and has made them receive produce from neighboring farmers in exchange for forest products or for farm work. The important factor for adoption of their own cultivation is that acquiring produce from the neighboring farmers became diffcult due to change in relationship between some Baka and farmers. Colonial government policy also affected the Baka. The major crop of the Baka is plantain. Plantain as a crop requires little care or preservation for future planting and consumption, suited for the Baka cultivation. These factors probably promoted adoption of cultivation by the Baka.Key Words: Baka hunter-gatherers; Acceptance of cultivation; Relationship with farmers; Plantain.

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